Richard Graham

Department: English
Discipline: English

Project Summary

Since 1998 Google search has increasingly become a major part of the lives of many throughout the world. Collectively we search using Google 3 billion times a day and Google is the dominant way of accessing the web in almost every country in the world. My PhD aims to draw out some of the effects this rapid adoption might be having on the way we think, remember and conceptualise knowledge.

My thesis consists of putting Google into various kinds of contexts, as a smaller part of a much larger historical narrative. In doing so issues such as education, politics and knowledge communities can be viewed from different perspectives.

My research can be viewed here:

 “Google and Advertising: Digital Capitalism in the Context of Post-Fordism, the Reification of Language, and the Rise of Fake News.” Palgrave Communications: Digital Society and Capitalism Special Issue, vol. 3, no. 45, Dec. 2017, doi:10.1057/s41599-017-0021-4.

“A ‘History’ of Search Engines: Mapping Technologies of Memory, Learning and Discovery” The Society of the Query Reader, Geert Lovink and Miriam Rasch (eds.), Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 2014. 


Supervisory Team

Professor Regenia Gagnier


Dr Laura Salisbury

Wider Research Interests

I am also interested in creative intersections between individuals and networks in three areas:

  • Literature (particularly 1945-present) with an interactive or choice component. (For example, Julio Cortázar's Hopscotch, B. S. Johnson's The Unfortunates, Marc Saporta's Composition No.1)
  • Videogames that foreground open-world vs. linear narrative issues.
  • Critical Theory that focuses on the interactions between individuals and technology within systems (For example, Bruno Latour, Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault Walter Ong, Friedrich Kittler, Ian Bogost)